The former idyll on the banks of the Manzanares – the narrow river that traverses Madrid and was, in centuries gone by, the traditional place to head for on light-hearted outings – gave way in the 60s to the M30 inner-city ring road with its daily traffic volume of over 300,000 vehicles. Apart from the noise and pollution it caused, the fact that this motorway also effectively separated old from new Madrid was reason enough for city planners to begin with an ambitious infrastructural programme. In just four years, from 2004 to 2007, the city ring road with all its through traffic was relocated to an underground tunnel system, the Madrid Calle 30. As a result, the city centre and the suburbs are no longer separated from each other and Madrid has been given room for a new “green lung”. The distinctive landmark of the Parque del Manzanares is Dominique Perrault’s Centro Deportivo Multifuncional del Manzanares, built to bolster Spain’s application to host the 2016 Summer Olympics.